Advert Source

The advert source is where a candidate first found or read about a job before applying for it.

For example, the candidate may have seen for the job on Facebook or a job board. To understand where candidates find job adverts helps to identify the most productive job boards for future campaigns.


What is an Applicant Tracking System (ATS)

An Applicant Tracking System, (sometimes referred to as an ATS) is software that’s used by recruiters and talent acquisition specialists to help keep track of candidates.

Applicant tracking software is designed to efficiently handle all recruitment needs from vacancy authorisation, handling candidates’ online applications, scoring, talent pools and searching, communication, interview management right through to onboarding candidates.

Equally as important, an online recruitment solution vastly improves the experience for candidates through slick online application, job alerts, self service and communication processes.

The term Applicant Tracking System does have many guises. You may find it being called e-recruitment, online recruitment software or online recruitment systems, recruitment software and candidate management systems, all of these terms are used interchangeably and reference the various functions of an applicant tracking system.

For further information on how an applicant tracking system like Jobtrain can help improve your hiring processes, save time and improve candidates’ experience, please take a look at our 5 minute video overview of our applicant tracking software.


What is an Application Programming Interface (API)

An Application Programming Interface (API) sets out how a programmer accesses functionality that’s contained within a code library. Essentially it is a set of commands, functions, and protocols which programmers can use when they’re building software for a specific operating system.

Having the API helps programmers to use predefined functions that work with the operating system, instead of writing them from scratch.

Application Programming Interface is also sometimes referred to as “Application Program Interface”.


What is an Application Service Provider (ASP)

An Application Service Provider (ASP) is a company or organisation that provides software applications to companies, organisations or individuals over the Internet. This is how we provide our service!

Application Service Providers allow companies to outsource some or in some cases almost all aspects of their Information Technology (IT) needs.

For example, some are commercial ventures catering to customers; or not-for-profit or government organisations that provide service and support to end users.

From the website webopedia, ASPs can be broken down into five categories:

  1. Enterprise ASPs deliver high-end business applications.
  2. Local/Regional ASPs supply a wide variety of application services for smaller businesses in a local area.
  3. Specialist ASPs provide applications for a specific need, such as website services or human resources.
  4. Vertical Market ASPs provide support to a specific industry, such as healthcare.
  5. Volume Business ASPs supply general small/medium-sized businesses with pre-packaged application services in a larger volume.



Pronounced “cash”, cache unfortunately has nothing to do with money! Cache is a component that stores data.

Cache memory remembers and holds onto frequently used data when you’re on the internet. It means that pages you visit frequently on your web browser are loaded much faster.

The data that’s stored in a cache might be the results of an earlier computer session. So, a cache hit occurs when the requested data is found in a cache, while a cache miss occurs when it can’t be found.

A cache hit is served when reading data from the cache. This is faster than re-computing a result or reading from a slower data store. Therefore the more requests that can be found from the cache, the faster the computer performs.


What is a Client Server

A Client Server is when a company hosts the recruitment software themselves on their own server (a powerful computer).

This is as opposed to it being delivered over the Internet like the Jobtrain applicant tracking system.



Cloud based or cloud computing is a more and more commonly used term that refers to applications, services or resources that are available to users on demand via the Internet from a cloud computing provider’s servers. Some of the most well known examples include Google Drive and Microsoft Office 365.

Most companies typically utilise cloud based computing as a way to increase capacity, enhance functionality or to add additional services that are available on demand. This way, organisations don’t need to commit to potentially expensive infrastructure costs.


Comma-separated Values (CSV)

Comma-separated values (CSV) is a common file type that’s used to import data and allows data to be saved in a structured table format.

With CSV, data can be imported from one software application to another. For example from an online recruitment system like Jobtrain to a HR system, with commas separating the values in each field. CSV is often used to transfer data between databases or spreadsheet tables.

CSV files can also be used in any spreadsheet program such as Microsoft Excel. This file type is different to others as no styling or formulas are saved in CSV format.


Conversion Rate/Ratio

The Conversion Rate/Ratio equates to the proportion of visitors to a website who go beyond a casual browse and take further action, like enquiring about a product or service.

Marketers, advertisers, and content creators will identify successful conversions differently.

A successful conversion to an online retailer might be defined as the sale of a product to a customer whose initial interest was developed by clicking on a banner advertisement.

In terms of content creators, a successful conversion may refer to a membership registration, newsletter subscription or software download or whitepaper download.

In terms of Jobtrain’s applicant tracking system, we use conversion rates to refer to the percentage of candidates who click to apply for a job and then subsequently submit an application online.


CV Parsing

CV Parsing is the conversion of free-form CV content and “parsing” it into structured information that’s suitable for storage, reporting and manipulation by a computer.

In practice, this means that the CV is intelligently read by the applicant tracking system and online applications forms are then automatically populated with the relevant CV text saving candidates huge amounts of time. CV Parsing is sometimes known as Resume Parsing, Resume Extraction or CV Extraction.


Data Protection

Data Protection is the relationship between the collection and distribution of data, technology, the public expectation of privacy, and the legal and political issues surrounding them.

The Data Protection Act controls how personal information is used by organisations, businesses or the government. For further information, please refer to the Data Protection Act on the UK government website.


Direct Sourcing

Direct sourcing of candidates is simply when a company or organisation recruits their workforce directly rather than using a recruitment agency/consultancy.

Using applicant tracking software helps companies and organisations make direct sourcing a reality. Candidate management systems let’s candidates apply directly to your roles and allows companies to manage the entire recruitment process themselves.

See also Applicant Tracking Systems.


Domain/Sub Domain

A Domain or Sub Domain contains a group of computers that can be accessed and administered with a common set of rules. A domain is the most recognised system of assigning addresses to internet servers, like

A sub domain (which is also known as a child domain) is a more specific portion or extension of a domain name. Sub domains are used to divide up web domains without registering a new domain name. For example, you could create a sub domain for recruitment on your website, so it reads

Some of Jobtrain’s clients use this principle for their careers websites. An example would be Taylor & Francis.



E-recruitment, also known as online recruitment, is when companies or organisations use technology and in particular internet based technology for tasks such as vacancy and offer authorisations, searching, attracting, assessing, interviewing and hiring new personnel.

See also Applicant Tracking Systems.


Employer Branding

Employer branding is really important in order to attract and hire the best candidates for your company or organisation.

Employer branding in essence is how your company or organisation is perceived externally. For instance, does it have a reputation as a great place to work, is the company ethical, etc.

It describes what happens every time a company (or an extension of the company, be it social media, recruiters, etc) communicates with the world and how people external to the company perceive it.


File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a common method of transferring or exchanging files via the internet from one computer to another.

For instance, FTP allows internet users to upload files from their own computer to a website or alternatively download files from a website to their computer.


Google Analytics

Google Analytics is a free service offered by the internet giant Google. Through the use of dashboards, the service generates detailed statistics about a website’s traffic and traffic sources, measuring conversions and sales for search engine optimisation (SEO) and other marketing purposes.

Google Analytics is useful for companies as it allows users to pinpoint which marketing initiatives are most effective and where visitors have come from including how visitors have discovered a website, like what keywords were used.

For more advanced marketing campaigns, companies can also set up paid advertisement campaigns for set keywords and phrases using a Pay-Per-Click campaign to drive more visitors to a website.



A website on a server or other computer so that it can be accessed over the Internet – Jobtrain is provided to our clients this way.



HTML stands for “Hyper-Text Markup Language”. This is the language that internet pages are written in.

Internet pages must conform to the rules of HTML in order to be displayed correctly when viewed in a web browser, like Google Chrome or Internet Explorer.

A web browser reads the HTML files then composes them into visible or audible internet pages. The web browser does not display the HTML language and instead uses them to interpret the content of the page to show an easily viewed version of the content.


Human Resources Management Systems (HRMS/HRIS)

A Human Resources Management System (HRMS/HRIS) is a type of information software.

HRMS/HRIS is designed to manage an organisation’s computerised and automated HR processes such as payroll, attendance records and accounting functions within a business.

Most applicant tracking systems will be able to integrate with the vast majority of HRMS.

See also Integrations for more details.



An IFrame or (Inline Frame to give it its full title) is an HTML document that’s embedded inside another HTML document on a webpage.

A website’s content, such as an advert, can be inserted into a different webpage on an entirely different website by using an iframe, essentially providing a frame around another – much like a picture frame!



Indexed or Indexing is a process that speeds up the process of finding and retrieving information. For a website to be included in Google searches, they would need to be added to the Google index.

From an applicant tracking system perspective, indexing the content of candidate CVs speeds up the process of searching and retrieving them.


Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO)

The Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) is the UK’s independent authority created to uphold information rights in the public interest. It promotes openness by public bodies and data privacy for individuals.



Integration is the process of linking together different computing systems and software applications.

For example candidate management systems like Jobtrain can integrate with a number of different systems, such as:

  1. HR systems to automate the process of creating new employees;
  2. Psychometric testing providers like SHL to feed results directly back into your candidate management system;
  3. Integrating with your favourite video interviewing platforms such as Launchpad Recruits.


Internet Protocol (IP)

IP stands for Internet Protocol. It is the main protocol that enables computers to talk to each other by providing a standard set of rules for sending and receiving data over the Internet. Each computer (or host) on the internet has at least one IP address so that it can be uniquely identified from other computers.

Most networks combine IP with a higher-level protocol called Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), which establishes a virtual connection between a destination and a source. TCP/IP establishes a connection between two hosts so that they can send messages back and forth for a period of time.


Job Alerts

Job alerts allow current employees and external candidates to set-up alerts for jobs by defining their preferences against pre-defined criteria, like location, business area and salary.

Within Jobtrain, these alerts can be really useful as candidates’ profiles become stored in a job alert pool that is searched every time a new vacancy is created and candidates with matching alert criteria emailed with an invitation to apply.

Read about candidate experience.


Keyword Search

A keyword search is simply a word or a number of words or phrase that’s entered into a search engine like Google. Keywords and phrases can be used to look for endless amounts of things like stories, articles, images, shopping websites or a database.

Keywords can also be used in talent pools in a candidate management system. For example if you’re looking for a candidate on the database that has excellent customer service experience and lives in Manchester.


Killer Questions/Pre-assessment Questions

Killer Questions or Pre-assessment Questions are questions and tests that help businesses eliminate unsuitable candidates from the recruitment process.

Our clients find these really useful to help screen out candidates that for instance may not have a driving licence for a delivery driver role and so on, saving you and your candidates’ time.



Multi-posting is the process or facility to post a job advert to a number of different job boards at once.

In Jobtrain’s applicant tracking software you can multi-post job adverts really easily to a number of different job posting providers in just a few clicks.

Read about  job advertising.



Onboarding is the process of hiring a new employee through a series of processes, which can include; offer letters, contract signing, health questionnaires, policy acceptance and orientation material or required training to be completed prior to employment or during the induction period.

Onboarding can also be used if an employee changes roles within the organisation and is granted new or expanded access privileges.

Read more about online onboarding within our applicant tracking system.


Online Scored Assessment

Online Scored Assessments, self selection questions and forms are basically online questionnaires that are designed to help screen out unsuitable candidates or to score candidates based on role competencies, qualifications and/or behaviour.

The questions can simply be yes or no answers for core requirements or alternatively be scored in order of importance and multiple choice questions for competency based assessment. Candidates can be automatically rejected if they don’t meet minimum criteria or a pre-defined benchmark score.


Online Testing

Online testing (or psychometric testing) is an online version of competency or skills verification and testing. In its broadest sense, online testing uses information technology for any assessment-related activity. The tests aim to measure a number of things such as aptitude and personality.


PDF (Portable Document Format)

A PDF or Portable Document Format is a multi-platform file format developed by Adobe Systems.

A PDF is a file type that has been developed to capture all elements of a printable document as an electronic image. This allows you to view, navigate, print or forward the file to someone else.


Recruitment Management Software

Recruitment Management Software is a system that’s used by recruiters and talent acquisition professionals to keep track of candidates who have applied for roles or registered for job alerts. It’s sometimes called Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) too.

Recruitment software is used by companies for a wide variety of functions throughout the recruiting and hiring process.

Like applicant tracking systems, this software is also designed to handle all recruitment needs like vacancy and offer authorisation, online applications, creation of talent pools, searching, sending emails, letters and text messages, interview management right through to onboarding of candidates.

Recruitment management software also vastly improves your candidates’ experiences through improved online application, setting up job alerts, a number of self service options and regular communication.

For further information on how online recruitment software can help your hiring strategies, please take a look at our 5 minute video overview of online recruitment software.


Recruitment Process Outsourcing (RPO)

Recruitment Process Outsourcing (RPO) is a type of business process outsourcing (BPO).

RPO is the name that’s given to a strategy to engage a third party company that will manage all aspects of a business’ recruitment activity. An RPO provider is different to recruitment agencies and consultancies.

RPO providers’ services can vary a lot. Some may offer specific services like candidate research and others will take on the entire recruitment function of a company or organisation.


Relationship Manager

From the outset of the partnership, all Jobtrain clients are assigned a Relationship Manager (RM). Jobtrain’s RMs are really experienced in all things HR, recruiting and applicant tracking systems related. They have been on both sides when using candidate management software, from the client and the provider side.

Throughout the scoping and implementation process, your Relationship Manager will be on hand to answer any questions each step of the way. From initial onsite scoping (to determine your processes and requirements to develop a through brief), system testing and sign-off all the way through to the training sessions for you and your team.

With superb ongoing and unlimited email and telephone support for you and your candidates, the Jobtrain support team and your Relationship Manager are always available to offer any help or advice.

Read about our help and support for more details.


Return on Investment (ROI)

Return on Investment (ROI) is an accounting formula that’s used to obtain an actual or perceived future value of an expense or investment. It is the most commonly used profitability ratio.

There are several ways to determine ROI, but the most frequently used method is to divide net profit by total assets.

Companies and organisations often need to understand what the perceived ROI will be when investing in applicant tracking software.

Jobtrain has a whitepaper on this subject and we’d be happy to supply it. Just get in touch.



RSS is known as both “RDF Site Summary” and “Rich Site Summary” but is also commonly referred to as “Really Simple Syndication”.

RSS is a method of providing website content such as news stories or software updates in a standard XML format. It’s used for delivering regularly changing web content. There are many examples of where it’s used such as news related websites, blogs and other online publishers.



A sandbox is a really clever way of building and containing programming code in a safe place while it’s being tested. Almost like a child plays in a sandpit, a software developer will test and “play” with programming code in a sandbox.

By using sandboxing, it protects live servers and data while testing is carried out safely.


Search Engine Marketing (SEM) 

Search Engine Marketing (SEM) is a form of marketing on the internet.

It involves promoting websites by increasing visibility in search engine results pages through optimisation and advertising and is typically used to describe paid search activities.

Search engine marketing is now more often described with the shorter phrase of “search marketing” as this term tends to encompass both SEO and SEM.


Search Engine Optimisation (SEO)

Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) describes the strategy that involves techniques and tactics to increase the amount of visitors to a website by obtaining a high-ranking position in search engine results pages like Google.

See Google Analytics for more information on how to analyse website traffic.



A server is a computer or device on a network that manages network resources. Servers are often dedicated, meaning that they perform no other tasks other than their server tasks.

On multi-processing operating systems, however a single computer is able to execute several programs at once. A server in this case could refer to the program that is managing resources rather than the entire computer.

There really are many different types of servers that you probably use every day on your computer, such as web servers, mail servers, print servers and file servers.


Single Sign-On (SSO)

Single Sign-On (SSO) is a session or user verification process that allows someone to enter one name and password in order to access multiple applications or software.

The Single Sign-On process authenticates the user for all the applications they’ve been given access to, cutting out further email and password prompts when they switch applications during a particular session.

A number of Jobtrain clients use SSO technology to make using our applicant tracking system even easier!


SMS (Short Message Service)

SMS stands for “Short Message Service” and most of us probably send one at least once a day.

SMS is used to send text messages to mobile phones from either another mobile or they can even be sent from an applicant tracking system to candidates for example.


Social Media

Social media is best described as a huge variety of electronic communication via the internet.

Social media is used through websites for social networking and micro-blogging where you can create online communities to interact and share information, ideas, personal messages and other content (like photos and videos) with friends and colleagues.

Social media integrates in so many different ways. For instance, most websites have the ability for readers to share website pages via social media and many applications, like candidate management systems, allow users to create a profile simply using their social media profile and login credentials.

Some of the major players in the social media arena include Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, Reddit and Google+.


Social Recruitment

Social recruitment is about sourcing and recruiting candidates via the huge array of social media platforms and channels like Facebook, Twitter, XING and LinkedIn. Recruiters trawl social media by searching on social media profiles for keywords and job history.

Recruiters can also use the power of social media to spread the reach of their job adverts. Recruiters can interact with potential employees and create a talent community to help spread the organisation’s message far and wide.

See Social Media for an overview.


Software as a Service (SaaS)

Software as a Service (SaaS) is software that is delivered over the Internet rather than it physically installed on a computer.

SaaS applications typically run within a web browser (like Google Chrome or Internet Explorer), which means users only need a compatible browser in order to access the software from anywhere in the world!

Jobtrain’s candidate system is a SaaS solution.


SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)

SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) is the standard secure protocol that’s been developed for sending information securely and encrypted over the internet.

Many websites use SSL for secure areas of their sites, such as online banking and online checkouts.


Talent Pools

A Talent Pool is typically defined as a database that contains candidate profiles who are actively interested in a job with an organisation or company.

Using applicant tracking systems like Jobtrain, companies can encourage their current employees and external candidates to register their details to receive tailored job alerts. These candidates and employees are then placed in talent pools and can be contacted instantly should a suitable vacancy arise.

Companies can also draw from the talent pool by profile-matching appropriate candidates with job opportunities.

Watch our 5 minute overview video of the Jobtrain candidate management system which includes how Talent Pools work.



URL stands for “Uniform Resource Locator”. A URL is the address of a specific website or file on the internet that’s normally shown at the top of the web browser (for example, Google Chrome) like

The first part of the URL is called a protocol identifier and it indicates what protocol to use (e.g. http).

The second part is called a resource name which is the complete address or the domain name where the resource is located.


Web 2.0

Web 2.0 is term that was introduced in 2004 and refers to the second generation of the World Wide Web.

Web 2.0 technologies provide a level of user interaction that was not available before in Web 1.0. Websites have become much more dynamic and connected, producing online communities, interaction and making it even easier to share information on the Internet like on social media.


Web Accessibility (AA)

Web Accessibility (AA) is aimed at making sure all users have equal access to information and functionalities on the Internet.

More specifically, Web Accessibility means that people with all abilities and disabilities can view, understand, navigate, and interact with the internet.

Web Services

A web service is a method of communication between two devices over the World Wide Web.

It is a software function provided at a network address over the Internet or via the Cloud. Web service is a service that’s “always on”, as in the concept of utility computing.



XML and HR-XML stands for “Extensible Markup Language”. Yes, technically it should be EML!

XML is used to define documents with a standard format that can be read by any XML-compatible application. The XML standard allows structured data to be electronically shared via the Internet as well as corporate networks.